“These military interventions are in the context of a previous Turkish intervention in northern Iraq, with the intention of conducting combat exercises in several regional countries and signing military agreements with Arab and African countries. The idea is to develop Turkish relations abroad in order to promote military exports, maximize economic returns and increase regional influence on the basis of a hard power,” he added: “Erdogan`s aggressive nationalism now goes beyond Turkey`s borders and aims to obtain land in Greece and Iraq. The expiry of the Treaty of Lausanne by 2023 has sparked a new debate among global geopolitical and geostrategic thinkers about how Turkey would respond to this tectonic development. Will Turkey revive the Ottoman Empire? Will the geopolitical and geoeconomic map of the region change? Will Turkey win again by deploying its hard power and thus creating regional domination? Demands that correspond to these and others are now an integral part of any transnational discourse. With the expiry of this century-old treaty in 2023, Turkey will itself enter a new era by drilling oil and dug up a new canal linking the Black Sea to the Marmara Sea to recover the costs of passing ships. This seismic evolution, combined with Turkey`s recent military adventurism, suggests that the geographical contours of the region will certainly undergo a gigantic metamorphosis after the end of the Treaty of Lausanne. Mohamed Abdel-Kader Khalil, an Egyptian expert on Turkish affairs, said: “Turkish foreign policy in the Middle East is linked to the use of Turkish military capabilities in the region. This is reflected in Turkish military concentrations on the borders of Iraq and Syria and in its participation in the Red Sea through an agreement on the island of Sawken, Sudan, as well as by the Turkish military intervention in the northern Syrian town of Afrin. Recep Tayyib Erdogan`s statement on the eve of the centenary of the Turkish Republic is indicative of the fact that something revolutionary will happen after 2023. He said Turkey would shape the future of the entire region if it met its 2023 targets. Turkey has achieved new victories and successes, he added. Among many agreements was a separate agreement with the United States, the Chester concession. In the United States, the treaty was rejected by several political groups, including the Committee against the Treaty of Lausanne (COLT), and on January 18, 1927, the U.S.

Senate refused to ratify the treaty by 50 votes to 34, six votes less than the two-thirds requested by the Constitution. [20] As a result, Turkey cancelled the concession. [9] The Ottomans had sovereignty over the two holy sites of Makkah and Madina and ruled Cyprus, Iraq, Syria, Libya and Greece. The date on which the Treaty of Lausanne expires on 24 July 2023 is near. The end of the treaty will mark the resumption of Turkey`s regional hegemony, as it can be drilled in the Black Sea, in the eastern Mediterranean. In order to isolate emerging geopolitical realities, Pakistan should also formulate a strategy to seize the opportunities that Turkey will offer in the coming days. It is expected to develop a comprehensive two-phase plan before 2023 and after 2023.